Ozone, the antidote of viruses in COVID-19. You can know from three aspects: the characteristics of ozone, the birth of ozone therapy, and the activation of the immune system.
The characteristics of ozone
Ozone is a trace gas in the earth's atmosphere. It is formed when oxygen molecules in the atmosphere are broken down into oxygen atoms by solar radiation, and the oxygen atoms combine with the surrounding oxygen molecules. It contains three oxygen atoms. More than 90 percent of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the upper atmosphere or stratosphere, 10 to 50 kilometers above the ground. This is the ozone layer that needs to be protected. A small number of ozone molecules linger near the ground and still have a role in blocking ultraviolet light. But some experts have found a troubling trend of rapidly increasing concentrations of ozone near the ground. Although ozone plays an important role in protecting people and the environment in the stratosphere, if its concentration increases in the troposphere, it will have harmful effects on human health. Ozone irritates the eyes and respiratory tract and affects lung function. Higher concentrations can also be harmful to plants.
By its nature, ozone can be both helpful and harmful. It is a providential shield and sometimes a violent poison. Up to now, there has been a consensus and a lot of work on the positive effects of ozone and what measures should be taken to protect it. However, the negative effects of the ozone layer, although people have been aware of, but so far in addition to atmospheric monitoring and air pollution forecast, there is no real practical way to solve.
The birth of ozone therapy
O3 therapy combines a mixture of oxygen (O2)-O3, with a diverse therapeutic range (10–80 μg/mL of gas per mL of blood).5-7
O3 therapy administration is variable based on treatment goals and the location of therapy. The first and most popular is O3 autohemotransfusion (O3-AHT).
O3-AHT has grown in popularity because it allows for a predetermined amount of blood to be taken and thus, using stoichiometric calculations, precise concertation of O2-O3 can be infused.
This small amount of blood is subjected to O2-O3 ex vivo is then administered to the patient.5,6 Extracorporeal blood oxygenation and ozonation are very similar techniques. However, its goal is to obtain higher blood volume than the 200–300 mL seen in O3-AHT.5
Other modalities of therapies include direct injection via the intramuscular, intradiscal, and paravertebral site of administration.
Rectal insufflation of O2-O3 is another common site of administration. However, insufflation of the tubal, vaginal, vesical, pleural, and peritoneal cavities have proven to be prudent routes of administration.
Cutaneous exposure has also had likely outcomes and can be achieved by sealing the portion of the body in a chamber or bag and insufflating with O2-O3 mixture.
Saline with O2-O3 dissolved is used to avoid the risk of an embolism when administered intravenously.
The activation Immune system
In vivo, O3 therapy has been shown to have multifaceted effects when interacting with PUFA. As stated previously, O3 reacts with PUFA and other antioxidants, H2O2, and various peroxidation compounds are formed. H2O2 readily diffuses into immune cells has been shown to act as a regulatory step in signal transduction and facilitating a myriad of immune responses.36,38 Specifically, increases in interferon, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin (IL)-2 are seen.
The increases with IL-2 are known to initiate immune response mechanisms.1 Additionally, H2O2 activates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), which increases immunoactive cytokine release and upregulate tissue remodeling. H2O2 mediates the action of NF-κB by enhancing the activity of tyrosine kinases that will phosphorylate IκB, a subunit of the transcription factor NF-κB.34,37 Low doses of O3 have been shown to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, release bradykinin, and increase secretions of macrophages and leukocytes.34
Having the correct amount of either of these oxidative markers can be used to create a sufficient rise in H2O2 and NO levels to stimulate the most notable increase in IL-8. IL-8 also activates NF-κB, allowing the production of ROS scavengers.7
Animal models using O3 have shown to reduce and prevent inflammatory responses stemming from the presence of E. coli in the renal system.26,38 Additional studies have provided evidence of the anti-inflammatory effects of O3.
In short, ozone therapy may be a useful modality in controlling COVID-19 infection, however, further clinical studies are needed to determine effectiveness, optimal ozone dosage, and appropriate treatment duration.
COVID-19 teaches us the importance of life, ozone gives us the possibility of health.